# Introduction to Math and Science Standards with the Hummingbird

To help teachers integrate the Hummingbird into their classroom, we have compiled a number of documents to show how the Hummingbird can be used to meet the Common Core (CC) Math Standards* and the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)**. Each document outlines the standards associated with a particular grade or range of grades. We have placed each standard into one of the following four categories:

ICON

DESCRIPTION

Any Hummingbird project will meet this standard.

A Hummingbird project can be designed to meet this standard by directly demonstrating a concept.

A Hummingbird project can be designed to meet this standard by illustrating a concept.

This standard may be difficult to meet with Hummingbird projects.

The color of the icon for a given standard tells you the category for that standard. In addition, an example or explanation is given to indicate why we selected that category. Here we will describe each of the four categories in more detail.

### Any Hummingbird project will meet this standard.

This category is used for standards that are easy to meet with Hummingbird projects. This includes the NGSS standards for Engineering Design (ETS1). It also includes some math standards. For example, an understanding of angles is needed to control the servo motors, so most Hummingbird projects meet the CC standard for measuring angles (4.MD.C).

For standards in this category, our standards alignment documents will give an explanation of why most Hummingbird projects will meet the standard.

### A Hummingbird project can be designed to meet this standard by directly demonstrating a concept.

The Hummingbird kit can be used to directly demonstrate many concepts in math and science. Examples of this type of project include A Robotic Rube Goldberg Machine and Creating Waves with a Gear Motor. The Rube Goldberg machine demonstrates both Newton’s third law and the concept of kinetic energy by using collisions to accomplish a goal (NGSS MS-PS2-1 and MS-PS3-5). Creating Waves with a Gear Motor uses a crankshaft to transform the rotational motion of the gear motor into linear motion. This project addresses disciplinary core idea PS4-A in the NGSS standards (4-PS4-1 and MS-PS4-1), but this system could also be used to address Common Core math standards that focus on trigonometric functions (HSF.TF.A.1, HSF.TF.A.2, and HSF.TF.B.5) and visualizing data (HSS.ID.B.6).

For standards in this category, our standards alignment documents will give an example of a possible Hummingbird project. This is just one example; there may be many other possibilities!

### A Hummingbird project can be designed to meet this standard by illustrating a concept.

Some concepts can be directly demonstrated with the Hummingbird. Others, such as the cell cycle, cannot be directly demonstrated, but they can be illustrated using a robot. Where once students might have made posters or written a report, they can now use the Hummingbird to create a moving, interactive explanation of a concept. This type of project can be thought of as a robotic diorama. If students use Scratch or Snap! to program the robot, then they can also enhance their project with information displayed on the computer screen.

Energy Transformations Using Hummingbird Robotics is an excellent example of this type of project. Student use motors and LEDs to illustrate how sunlight produces electricity through hydropower (or another process). Hummingbird components are used to represent each step of this process. In addition, students write a program to operate these components in a specific sequence. This shows that they understand cause and effect within this energy transformation. The Constellations project is another good example of this type of project. In Constellations, LEDs are used to illustrate a particular constellation, while a motor is used to show the movement of the constellation in the sky.

For standards in this category, our standards alignment documents will give an example of a possible Hummingbird project. Again, there may be many other possibilities!

### This standard may be difficult to meet with Hummingbird projects.

Some standards are focused on a particular technique that is incompatible with the Hummingbird. For example, some NGSS standards emphasize laboratory techniques such as burning or mixing substances to observe chemical reactions. These techniques could damage the Hummingbird hardware. Other standards are simply a poor fit for an engineering project. For instance, CC math standards involving irrational numbers (such as 8.NS.A) may be a poor fit because the numerical precision of the Hummingbird hardware is limited.

For standards in this category, our standards alignment documents will give an explanation of why the standard is difficult to meet with a Hummingbird project.

### Standards Alignment Documents

• – A list of all the CC math standards for grades 4-8 with suggestions for Hummingbird activities aligned with these standards.
• – A list of all the NGSS for grades 4-8 with suggestions for Hummingbird activities aligned with these standards. In the NGSS, grades 6-8 are considered together as middle school.

* Common Core standards are the property of the National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and Council of Chief State School Officers.

** Next Generation Science Standards is a registered trademark of Achieve. Neither Achieve nor the lead states and partners that developed the Next Generation Science Standards were involved in the production of this product, and do not endorse it.